Skip to content
On this page

Gettext (i18n)

Gettext is an i18n tool that is separate from your app's code. The main benefit over other tools is, just as GResource, being integrated with GTK. Gettext apart from basic 1 on 1 translations, is also able to handle plurals and automatically detect the system's language.

You can get the Crystal bindings for it and explore its methods at: https://github.com/GeopJr/gettext.cr.

There are three filetypes associated with it: .pot, .po & .mo. The last one is binary.

Getting Started

  • Create a po/ folder if you haven't already

  • Create a po/LINGUAS file that includes the language codes of the available translations, one per line

  • Create a po/POTFILES file that includes the paths of the files we should extract strings from (usually all .ui files, metainfo & desktop)

  • Run xgettext to extract the translatable strings into a .pot file, which acts as a "template" for the other translations:

$ xgettext --files-from=po/POTFILES --output=po/APP_ID.pot
  • Create a .po file for a language using msginit e.g.:
$ msginit -i po/APP_ID.pot -o po/el.po -l el_GR.utf8
  • Translate the strings found in the newly created .po file

  • Create a binary .mo using msgfmt e.g.:

$ msgfmt po/el.po -o po/locale/el/LC_MESSAGES/APP_ID.mo
  • Move the po/locale/ to /usr/share/locale (not necessary)

  • Add the following to your prerequisites:

Gettext.setlocale(Gettext::LC::ALL, "")

# The macro allows you to set a custom env var during compile time for the mo location e.g. `MY_APP_LOCALE_LOCATION="./po/locale/"`
Gettext.bindtextdomain("APP_ID", {{env("MY_APP_LOCALE_LOCATION").nil? ? "/usr/share/locale" : env("MY_APP_LOCALE_LOCATION")}})
Gettext.textdomain("APP_ID")
  • Test it by running it with LANG="el"

You can also add strings that only exist in code in the .pot (and .po) files and then translate them on demand, for instance:

label = Gtk::Label.new("")
label.text = Gettext.gettext("Hello World")
# LANG="en" => "Hello World"
# LANG="el" => "Γειά σου Κόσμε"

Translating .desktop and metainfo files

Translating those files is just as easy, for the sake of not replacing themselves, add the .in extension (APP_ID.dekstop.in & APP_ID.metainfo.xml.in).

TIP

Don't forget to update them in the POTFILES file too.

Now all you have to do is run:

  • For the metainfo file:
$ msgfmt --xml --template data/APP_ID.metainfo.xml.in -d "./po" -o data/APP_ID.metainfo.xml
  • For the .desktop file
$ msgfmt --desktop --template data/APP_ID.desktop.in -d "./po" -o data/APP_ID.desktop

INFO

You need to have the language you are testing with, installed (locale -a).

TIP

Remember to add *.mo to your .gitignore.

TIP

Replace APP_ID with your app's ID.

Released under a Creative Commons Zero v1.0 Universal License